|2013||Masters by Research converted to PhD (Paediatric Biomechanics)|
|1996||Fellow of the Australasian Academy of Podiatric Medicine|
|1993||Diploma Health Science (Podiatry)|
|McKay, M. J., Baldwin, J. N., Ferreira, P., Simic, M., Vanicek, N., Hiller, C. E., . . . Pourkazemi, F. (2015). 1000 Norms Project: protocol of a cross-sectional study cataloging human variation. Physiotherapy.|
|Chard, A., Greene, A., J, Burns., & Smith R. (2015). Effect of thong style flip flops on children’s sidestep kinematics. Sports Biomechanics, under review|
|Chard, A., Greene, A., J, Burns., & Smith R. (2015). Effect of thong style flip flops on children’s sidestep kinematics. Paper presented at the International Society of Biomechanics in Sport, Poitiers, France,|
|Chard, A., Greene, A., Hunt, A., Vanwanseele, B., & Smith, R. (2013). Effect of thong style flip-flops on children’s barefoot walking and jogging kinematics. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 6(1), 8.|
|Chard, A., Greene, A., Hunt, A., Vanwanseele, B., & Smith, R. (2012). Effect of thong style flip-flops on children’s midfoot motion during gait. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 5(Suppl 1), O19.|
|Smith, R., Wegener, C., Greene, A., Chard, A., & Fong Yan, A. (2012). Biomechanics of footwear design. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 5(Suppl 1), I1.|
|Chard, A., Smith, R., Hunt, A., & Greene, A. (2011). Effect Thong Style Flip-Flop Footwear On Children’s Hallux Sagittal Plane Motion During Gait. Paper presented at the International Society of Biomechanics, Brussels, Belgium, pages.|
|2015||International Society of Biomechanics in Sport (Poitiers France). Chard A et al: Effect Thong Style Flip-Flop and supportive shoes on children’s barefoot sidestep kinematics.|
|2012||International Conference of Foot and Ankle Biomechanics (Sydney Australia). Chard A et al: Effect of thong style flip-flops on children’s midfoot motion during gait.|
|2011||XXIII International Society of Biomechanics Congress XXIII (Brussels, Belgium). Chard A et al: Effect of thong style flip-flops on children’s hallux motion during gait.|
|2009||Biannual University of Sydney student research conference. Chard A et al: Effect of thong’s on children’s lower limb biomechanics.|
|1996||Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport (Canberra, A.C.T.) Calcaneal Salter-Harris fracture; A case study.|
|2007||Elsevier Prise for Excellence|
|2013||Wegener, C. and A. Chard Australasian Podiatry Association. Practical 3D Gait Workshop: Understanding gait research and applying it to clinical practice.|
|2012||Smith, R., Wegener, C., Greene, A., Chard, A., & Fong Yan, A. Biomechanics of footwear design. International Conference of Foot and Ankle Biomechanics (Sydney Australia).|
|JOURNAL ARTICLES REVIEWED|
|Toshiyuki Kurihara T., Otsuka M., Tottori N., Hashimoto T., Isaka T,. Yamauchi J. (2013) Maximal muscle force and quantitative analysis of the intrinsic muscles of the foot by using MRI. Journal of Biomechanics|
|Price, C., Andrejevas, V., Findlow, A., Graham-Smith, P., & Jones, R. (2014). Does flip-flop style footwear modify ankle biomechanics and foot loading patterns? Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 7(1), 40.|
|Uritani, D, Fukumoto T, Matsumoto D, Shima M (2014). Reference values for toe grip strength among Japanese adults aged 20 to 79years: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 7(1): p. 28.|
|Remains under review: Comparative Analysis of User Perception and Step Length Using Toe Separating, Orthotic Sandals versus Thong Style Flip Flops. Footwear Science|
|Angus Chard PhD candidate (2009 – current)|
|Prof. Richard Smith|
|Prof. Joshua Burns|
|Dr Andrew Green|
|Angus Chard is a second-generation podiatrist with 23 years of clinical experience running a busy biomechanics oriented practice since 2003.Angus was awarded Fellow of the Australasian Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine if 1996 and upgraded his podiatry qualification to B.Sc (Podiatry) in 2007, winning the Elsevier Prize for Excellence. Angus has combined his clinical demands with research following recruitment to the University of Sydney Footwear Research Group in 2009.With a focus on children’s foot biomechanics, Angus is investigating the effect of unsupportive thong style footwear on children’s 3-Dimensional multi-segment foot motion. Angus successfully transitioned from a research Master’s degree during 2013 and became a PhD candidate, and continues to work on his PhD thesis titled, “Effect of unsupportive thong style flip-flops on children’s lower limb and foot biomechanics”.|
|Effect of footwear on children’s 3D multi-segment foot and lower limb biomechanics|
|Thongs (also known as flip-flops) are a common footwear choice for Australian children (Penkala, 2009). They are typically constructed from a rubber template which is loosely secured to the foot by a single V-shaped rubber strap extending from between the first web space to the base of the first and fifth metatarsals. Footwear is regarded as necessary apparel for foot comfort and protection. Due to their flexible and unrestrictive nature, thongs may be preferable to other children’s footwear types, all of which have been shown to alter natural foot function (Wegener, Hunt, Vanwanseele, Burns, & Smith, 2011), since the ideal footwear for a child’s developing feet is believed to be that which allows natural motion of the foot (Staheli, 1991; Walther, Herold, Sinderhauf, & Morrison, 2008). In support of this view are reports that, compared to habitually shod children, habitually unshod children have stronger and healthier feet with less incidence of toe deformity. (Staheli LT, 1991)Despite the possible advantage of thongs compared to other footwear options for children, there is no evidence that they are beneficial. Indeed, there are concerns that thongs may be harmful. In a recent survey of 272 parents of children, thongs were implicated by the parents as contributing to 15% of forefoot and 22% of rearfoot complaints. (Penkala, 2009) Prolonged use of thongs has been linked to heel pain (Matusek, 2007) and shin-splints (Borland, 2010). However, there exists no empirical evidence to explain the mechanisms for specific pathologies, and no analysis of the effect of thong wearing on foot function in children. From studies of adults, thongs have been found to result in increased ankle plantarflexion at heel contact, compared to sneakers (Shroyer & Welimar, 2010) and decreased plantar pressure at the rearfoot, forefoot and hallux, compared with barefoot (Carl & Barrett, 2008). Whilst the implications of these findings are unclear, the cushioning effect of a thong indicated by the decreased pressure challenges the commonly held belief of the need to claw the toes in order to maintain interaction between the barefoot and the thong. Other pathological mechanisms that are concerning because of their associations with symptoms in adults and may potentially occur in children who wear thongs include; that of plantar fasciitis with flattening of the longitudinal arch (Crawford & Thomson, 2003); and foot pronation and reduced hallux dorsiflexion (Wearing et al., 2004); and medial tibial stress syndrome also known as shin-splints with excessive foot pronation (Yates & White, 2004) and rearfoot eversion (Willems et al., 2006). However, there have been no studies of the effects on foot function in children to support or refute any concerns or harm in wearing thongs.ReferencesBorland, S. (Producer). (2010, 28/5/2011). Flip-flops injure 200000 a year, costing the NHS an astonishing 40m (pounds). MIke O’Neill, spokman for the Society of Chiropodists and Podiatrists UK. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1298471/Flip-flops-injure-200-000-year-costing-NHS-astonishing-40m.htmlCarl, T. J., & Barrett, S. L. (2008). Computerized analysis of plantar pressure variation in flip-flops, athletic shoes, and bare feet. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 98(5), 374-378.Crawford, F., & Thomson, C. (2003). Interventions for treating plantar heel pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 3(3). doi:Cited By (since 1996) 39|
Export Date 15 March 2012
Matusek, M. (Producer). (2007, 7/11/2010). Popular Flip-flop Sandals Linked To Rising Youth Heel Pain Rate. Retrieved from http://www.acfas.org/Media/Content.aspx?id=103
Penkala, S. (2009). Footwear choices for children: knowledge, application and relationships to health outcomes. (Dissertation/Thesis PhD thesis). Retrieved from http://usyd.summon.serialssolutions.com/link/0/eLvHCXMwQywzh5UHienpRkQUB2ZGwCiDXkkHG-NGKurdRBlk3VxDnD10QRvR46GDG_FJxuaWFsAq38SUT8mdK_pYsXNVB5OGAevDM8sA7IQn-Q
Shroyer, J., & Welimar, W. (2010). Comparative Analysis of human Gait While Wearing Thong-Style Flip-flops versus Sneakers. JAPMA, 100(4), 251-256.
Staheli, L. T. (1991). Shoes for children: a review. Pediatrics, v88(n2), p371(375).
Staheli LT. (1991). Shoes for children: a review. Pediatrics, v88(n2), 371-375.
Walther, M., Herold, D., Sinderhauf, A., & Morrison, R. (2008). Children sport shoes–A systematic review of current literature. Foot Ankle Surg, 14, 180 – 189.
Wearing, S. C., Smeathers, J. E., Yates, B., Sullivan, P. M., Urry, S. R., & Dubois, P. (2004). Sagittal movement of the medial longitudinal arch is unchanged in plantar fasciitis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(10), 1761-1767.
Wegener, C., Hunt, A., Vanwanseele, B., Burns, J., & Smith, R. (2011). Effect of children’s shoes on gait: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 4(1), 3.
Willems, T. M., De Clercq, D., Delbaere, K., Vanderstraeten, G., De Cock, A., & Witvrouw, E. (2006). A prospective study of gait related risk factors for exercise-related lower leg pain. Gait and Posture, 23(1), 91-98.
Yates, B., & White, S. (2004). The Incidence and Risk Factors in the Development of Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome among Naval Recruits. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 32(3), 772-780.