Extremes in high and flat arch foot posture have been shown to be a strong pathology predictor. Extreme foot postures increase the risk of developing musculoskeletal overuse syndromes, including; Achilles tendinopathy (1), shin-splints/ medial tibial stress syndrome (1-3), generalised foot pain (4), triathlete foot and leg overuse injuries (5), exercise-related lower leg pain (6-8), chronic heel pain (9), ankle injury (10) and knee (10, 11), hip and lower back pain (11).
It is accepted that children are born with flat feet and that their feet mature to form an arch and adult-like foot posture by the age of 6-8 years. (12)
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- Kothari A, Dixon PC, Stebbins J, Zavatsky AB, Theologis T. Are flexible flat feet associated with proximal joint problems in children? Gait and Posture. 2016;45:204-10.
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